Malay Graduates And Job Seekers Being Discriminated In Malaysia - The Bumiputera Group Made Up Majority of 72.5% of The Unemployed Malaysians - The Coverage
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Malay Graduates And Job Seekers Being Discriminated In Malaysia – The Bumiputera Group Made Up Majority of 72.5% of The Unemployed Malaysians

The Bumiputera group made up the majority or 72.5 per cent of the unemployed 463,700 Malaysians in 2017, with 336,400 Bumiputeras unemployed in the DOSM report.

It was entitled ‘Discrimination in high degrees: Race and graduate hiring in Malaysia‘ and was published in the Journal of Asia Pacific Economy by UM and UKM researchers.

This paper investigates racial discrimination in hiring fresh degree graduates in Malaysia through a field experiment. We send fictitious Malay and Chinese résumés to job advertisements, then analyse differentials in callback for interview attributable to racial identity, while controlling for applicant characteristics, employer profile and job requirements.

We find that race matters much more than résumé quality, with Malays – Malaysia’s majority group – significantly less likely to be called for interview. Other factors, particularly language proficiency of employees, language requirements of jobs and profile of employers, influence employer biases. Applicants fluent in Chinese fare better, and Chinese-controlled and foreign-controlled companies are more likely to favour Chinese résumés, indicating that cultural compatibility explains part of the discrimination.

Malay résumés tend to be perceived and prejudged adversely, and employers’ attitudes towards public policy outcomes, particularly pertaining to education quality and employment opportunity in the public sector, also account for the observed racial disparities.

When researchers sent fake resumes of Malay and Chinese fresh graduates, the Malay applicants are much less likely to be called back for an interview. Employers perceive Malays negatively, think that they have lower-quality education and always have the safety net in the form of government jobs to fall back on.

The research said that the data generated cannot give conclusive reasons. But some important points to highlight:

Cultural compatibility and language ability matters.

Employers with predominantly Chinese employees perceive that Malays are less likely to take jobs offered anyway (or quit within a few months), as Malays have the tendency to feel uncomfortable in these settings. The researchers theorise that Malays prefer environments where their religious customs and spoken language in work environment are catered to.

Malay applicants are negatively prejudged.

This explains why BA Chinese get higher callback rates than AA Malays. No conclusive reasons are given, except that the negative stereotypes may be reinforced by past experience and lack of contact between these two groups to prove otherwise.

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Appears to be the result of pro-Malay affirmative actions.

People tend to think that Malays have lower-quality education and higher opportunities in the public sector anyway. This is a very complex issue, and further research are needed, but the researchers suggest that pro-Malay policies may in fact hurt Malay graduates’ job prospects.

Source : tandfonline

More Bumi grads unemployed, than those who just skip university

While a university education is typically regarded as a means to secure a better future, a report has shown that Bumiputera graduates also find it difficult to get a job.

Actually, they have a higher unemployment rate than their peers of the same ethnicity who do not have a tertiary education.

The Ministry of Finance’s Economic Outlook 2019 report examined the unemployment rate among Malaysians of different education levels, based on the Department of Statistics Malaysia’s (DOSM) 2017 figures.

The report noted that Bumiputeras with tertiary education recorded the highest unemployment rate in 2017 at 4.6 per cent, far higher than Bumiputeras who only had secondary schooling (4 per cent), primary education (1.9 per cent), while Bumiputeras with no formal schooling recorded the lowest unemployment rate at 1.5 per cent.

In comparison, those without formal schooling recorded the highest unemployment rate within the ethnic Chinese community (3 per cent) and ethnic Indian community (6.9 per cent). For both ethnic groups, those who graduated from universities had the second highest unemployment rate at 2.9 per cent (Chinese) and 5.5 per cent (Indians).

Those categorised as “Others” had the highest unemployment rate among those with secondary education (8.6 per cent), while those with tertiary education came in second at 5 per cent.

According to DOSM’s Labour Force Survey Report Malaysia 2017, tertiary education refers to those whose highest level of education is above Form 5, while secondary education refer to those with education from Form 1 to Form 5 only. Primary education would be from Standard 1 to 6, while those with no formal education never attended school in institutions providing formal education.

The Economic Report 2019 explained that this scenario of high unemployment for tertiary-educated Malaysians which appears to buck conventional wisdom is due to a mismatch between industrial needs and graduates’ skills.

“The high unemployment rate among those with tertiary education including graduates, in particular, Bumiputeras (4.6 per cent or 129,000 persons) and Indians (5.5 per cent or 14,500 persons) is mainly due to skills gap,” the report said.

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“Furthermore, a survey conducted by the World Bank and Talent Corporation in 2014 found that 90 per cent of companies believe that university graduates should have more industrial training by the time they graduate.

The Bumiputera group made up the majority or 72.5 per cent of the unemployed 463,700 Malaysians in 2017, with 336,400 Bumiputeras unemployed in the DOSM report.

This was followed by the Chinese at 77,100 unemployed or 16.6 per cent of the unemployed Malaysians, and Indians at 43,300 (9.3 per cent) and Others at 6,800 (1.5 per cent).

According to DOSM’s 2017 statistics, the Bumiputera is the largest ethnic group at 68.8 per cent of the 28.7 million Malaysians, followed by Chinese (23.2 per cent), Indians (7 per cent) and those from other ethnic communities at one per cent.

Source : Malay Mail

Pensyarah cina UKM temui hasil kajian kaum cina diskriminasikan bangsa Melayu

1.BANGI, UKM – Kedudukan bangsa seseorang calon lebih diambil kira jika dibandingkan dengan kualiti kelayakan untuk dipanggil temu duga bagi mendapatkan pekerjaan dalam syarikat dimiliki kaum cina dan syarikat Antarabangsa yang di pegang jawatan tinggi oleh kaum cina di negara ini.

2.Ini adalah penemuan dua orang pensyarah kanan Dr Lee Hwok Aun dan Dr Muhammed Abdul Khalid dari Jabatan Pengajian Pembangunan, Universiti Malaya hasil suatu eksperimen *kajian selama tiga tahun* yang mereka lakukan untuk mengetahui sama ada panggilan untuk temu duga calon-calon yang memohon berdasarkan kualiti kelayakan atau berdasarkan bangsa.

3.Dr Lee membentangkan penemuan mereka di seminar *“Tahap Diskriminasi: Bangsa dan pengambilan Graduan di Malaysia”* anjuran Institut Kajian Malaysia dan Antarabangsa (IKMAS), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM).

4.Apa yang dihasilkan adalah berdasarkan suatu kajian mereka terhadap syarikat-syarikat cina dan syarikat Antarabangsa dimana *jawatan tinggi di pegang oleh kaum cina*. Kajian tersebut di lakukan dengan menghantar ‘resume’ kelayakan calon rekaan terdiri dari Melayu dan Cina yang mempunyai kelayakan yang hampir serupa yang baru tamat universiti kepada mana mana syarikat cina yang mengiklankan kerja kosong.

5.Analisa jumlah panggilan untuk di temu duga hasil dari permohonan yang mereka hantar itu mendapati secara keseluruhan *42.1% daripada pemohon Cina menerima panggilan untuk ditemu duga berbanding dengan hanya 1.2% pemohon Melayu* yang dipanggil walaupun kelayakan yang serupa telah dihantar.

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6.Dr Lee berkata mereka amat berhati-hati memastikan *resume yang dihantar adalah sama dari segi kualiti antara pemohon Melayu dan Cina* untuk mengetahui adakah syarikat kaum cina memilih berdasarkan bangsa pemohon.

7.Beliau bagaimana pun mengingatkan *mana mana individu yang tidak berpuas hati hasil kajian ini boleh mengemukakan saman* kepadanya kerana kajian ini telah di buat secara terperinci, melalui methodologi dan kaedah kaedah yang ada didalam pengajian PHD.

Kajian ini mengambil masa yang sangat panjang kerana ianya di ulang berkali kali hanya semata mata tidak percaya bahawa hasil keputusan menunjukkan syarikat kaum cina mengamalkan diskriminasi terhadap graduan Melayu. Kajian ini secara *asalnya memfokuskan untuk mengetahui mengapa graduan Melayu susah mendapat perkerjaan berbanding graduan cina*.

8.Beliau mengakui *wujudnya diskriminasi terhadap graduan Melayu* dari majikan. Didapati 44% pemohon berbangsa Cina dipanggil untuk temu duga berbanding hanya 1.8% pemohon Melayu diterima untuk temu duga bagi syarikat milik Cina.

9.Kajian mereka juga mendapati *hanya syarikat yang dimiliki Melayu tidak mengamalkan diskriminasi* dan boleh menerima mana mana calon baik Melayu atau Cina, di mana kadar panggilan balik terhadap pemohon dari graduan Cina adalah 4.8 % dan 5.8% untuk graduan Melayu.

10.Bagi syarikat Antarabangsa yang di pegang jawatan tinggi oleh kaum cina menunjukkan 42.9% calon Cina dipanggil untuk temu duga manakala tidak seorang pun calon Melayu menerima panggilan.

11.Kajian Dr Lee dan rakannya tidak melibatkan graduan dari luar negara. Bagaimana pun penemuan mereka turut menunjukkan *syarikat cina lebih menerima calon dari Universiti Swasta berbanding dengan Universiti Awam.*

12.Dr Lee berharap kajian itu digunakan dalam konteks yang betul. Ia hanya menunjukkan wujudnya diskriminasi terhadap graduan Melayu tetapi untuk mengetahui kenapa berlaku diskriminasi itu kajian yang lebih mendalam perlu dijalankan.

13.Dr Lee berkata adalah mustahil untuk mengetahui kenapa berlaku diskriminasi terhadap graduan Melayu kerana syarikat cina dan calon cina yang terlibat tidak mahu memberikan jawapan selain “kami tidak diskriminasi, kami amalkan hak kesamarataan”. Kajian ini bagaimanapun tidak diteruskan, kerana takut implikasi bangsa Melayu yang tahu akan hakikat kaum cina yang jelas mendiskriminasikan akan membuatkan bangsa Melayu marah akan sikap kaum cina.

14.Hadir di seminar tersebut adalah Timbalan Pengarah IKMAS, Prof Dr Tham Siew Yean, ahli akademik dan wakil media.

Source : sepatuputih

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